I’m interested in computer security, especially the areas of data-driven security and web security measurements. I’m currently working in the area of web security, analyzing websites in order to measure security from technical and human-centered perspectives.
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Advisor: Doowon Kim
Abstract: The ever-increasing phishing campaigns around the globe have been one of the main threats to cyber security. In response, the global anti-phishing entity (e. g., APWG) collectively maintains the up-to-date blacklist database (e. g., eCrimeX ) against phishing campaigns, and so do modern browsers (e. g., Google Safe Browsing). However, our finding reveals that such a mutual assistance system has remained a blind spot when detecting geolocation-based phishing campaigns. In this paper, we focus on phishing campaigns against the web portal service with the largest number of users (42 million) in South Korea. We harvest 1,558 phishing URLs from varying resources in the span of a full year, of which only a small fraction (3.8%) have been detected by eCrimeX despite a wide spectrum of active fraudulence cases. We demystify three pervasive types of phishing campaigns in South Korea: i) sophisticated phishing campaigns with varying adversarial tactics such as a proxy configuration, ii) phishing campaigns against a second-hand online market, and iii) phishing campaigns against a non-specific target. Aligned with previous findings, a phishing kit that supports automating the whole phishing campaign is prevalent. Besides, we frequently observe a hit-and-run scam where a phishing campaign is immediately inaccessible right after victimization is complete, each of which is tailored to a single potential victim over a new channel like a messenger. As part of mitigation efforts, we promptly provide regional phishing information to APWG, and immediately lock down a victim’s account to prevent further damages.
Abstract: Password-based authentication is one of the most commonly adopted mechanisms for online security. Choosing strong passwords is crucial for protecting ones' digital identities and assets, as weak passwords can be readily guessable, resulting in a compromise such as unauthorized access. To promote the use of strong passwords on the Web, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) provides website administrators with password composition policy (PCP) guidelines. We manually inspect popular websites to check if their password policies conform to NIST's PCP guidelines by generating passwords that meet each criterion and testing the 100 popular websites. Our findings reveal that a considerable number of web sites (on average, 53.5 %) do not comply with the guidelines, which could result in password breaches.
Dazzle-Attack: Anti-Forensic Server-Side Attack Via Fail-Free Dynamic State Machine. Bora Lee, Kyungchan Lim, JiHo Lee, Chijung Jung, Doowon Kim, Kyu Hyung Lee, Haehyun Cho, and and Yonghwi Kwon. In Proceedings of the 2022 The 23rd World Conference on Information Security Applications. WISA, 2022. (WISA’22)
Abstract: Server-side malware is one of the prevalent threats that can affect a large number of clients who visit the compromised server. In this paper, we propose Dazzle-attack, a new advanced server-side attack that is resilient to forensic analysis such as reverse-engineering. Dazzleattack retrieves typical (and non-suspicious) contents from benign and uncompromised websites to avoid detection and mislead the investigation to erroneously associate the attacks with benign websites. Dazzleattack leverages a specialized state-machine that accepts any inputs and produces outputs with respect to the inputs, which substantially enlarges the input-output space and makes reverse-engineering effort significantly difficult. We develop a prototype of Dazzle-attack and conduct empirical evaluation of Dazzle-attack to show that it imposes significant challenges to forensic analysis.