Certified Malware: Measuring Breaches of Trust in the Windows Code-Signing PKI
Digitally signed malware can bypass system protection mechanisms that install or launch only programs with valid signatures. It can also evade anti-virus programs, which often forego scanning signed binaries. Known from advanced threats such as Stuxnet and Flame, this type of abuse has not been measured systematically in the broader malware landscape. In particular, the methods, effectiveness window, and security implications of code-signing PKI abuse are not well understood. We propose a threat model that highlights three types of weaknesses in the code-signing PKI. We overcome challenges specific to code-signing measurements by introducing techniques for prioritizing the collection of code-signing certificates that are likely abusive. We also introduce an algorithm for distinguishing among different types of threats. These techniques allow us to study threats that breach the trust encoded in the Windows code-signing PKI. The threats include stealing the private keys associated with benign certificates and using them to sign malware or by impersonating legitimate companies that do not develop software and, hence, do not own code-signing certificates. Finally, we discuss the actionable implications of our findings and propose concrete steps for improving the security of the code-signing ecosystem.
Doowon Kim, Bum Jun Kwon, and Tudor Dumitraș. 2017. Certified malware: measuring breaches of trust in the windows code-signing PKI. In Proceedings of the 28th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security. ACM.